Types of humour by Marinus Jan Marijs
Types and Forms of Humour
Humor is often based upon what is referred to as frameshifting.
This is based upon the idea that people tend to put information into structures or categories.
Once this information is in a category it tends to stay put.
The first part of a joke leads a person to frame something in a certain way to have an image of what is going on and then we see a rapid shift to the second part of the joke and that movement is unexpected and that movement can be humorous.
Humour is based upon incongruity and the sense of surprise.
Mostly it deals with two constructs which are self-consistent but are generally incompatible frames of reference, but they are somehow humorously connected.
One shifts back to the first image and reinterpret that was created in light of the new information. It is the incongruity which creates the humorous effect.
Humor comes in many flavours, any of which may appeal to one person but not to another, and which may be enjoyed in alternation or in combination. Here are names and descriptions of the varieties of comic expression:
Here 300 different Types and Forms of Humour are outlined.
With about 500 original examples by the auteur (M.J.M.)
(No artificial sweeteners have been added)
The absurd Absurd humour focuses on the silly, ridiculous or surreal.
It is going exceptionally well, in support of my campaign against collecting signatures, I have already collected 5000 signatures
Acronyms and alphabetisms
Aggressive type of humour
As the name suggests, it’s aggressiveness is intended to insult others
Sir, the death can never be as annoying as your conversation
Allusions, distortions and quotations
A figure of speech that makes a reference to or a representation of people, places, events, literary works, myths, or works of art, either directly or by implication.
You have to set the bar so high,
that you can walk underneath it.
Differs from traditional punchline jokes which features many other forms of comedy such as observation, satire, surrealism, slapstick and improvisation. In its content, Alternative Comedy emerged as a counter to the establishment entertainment figures from the previous generation: It often reflected leftist, liberal and anti-racist concerns, there were more female comedians, it rejected yesterday’s tropes.
A touristic route through fantasy land
Anecdotes Comic personal stories, that may be true or partly true but embellished
Can you close the window, otherwise it will get too warm outside?
Anti-humour intentionally not funny, lacking in intrinsic meaning, joke set-up, what’s funny is that it’s not funny, parodies of jokes.
Not remotely amused
Apophthegm an edgy, more cynical aphorism.
Distrust: A reasonable suspicion towards external factors.
Banter is basically a jokey conversation between friends that involves good-natured teasing.
Look, everyone has the right to make a fool of himself,
but here you definitely make misuse of that privilege
Black comedy, also known as dark comedy or gallows humour, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter that is generally considered taboo, particularly subjects that are normally considered serious or painful to discuss.
Blending combining parts of words Blend Words
Ribaldry, or blue comedy also called off-colour, or risque (from the French word for “to risk”); relies on impropriety or indecency for comic effect. (A related type is broad humour, which refers to unrestrained, unsubtle humour often marked by coarse jokes and sexual situations).
Bodily functions: Residency of the toilet jokes
A burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects. The word derives from the Italian burlesco, which, in turn, is derived from the Italian burla – a joke, ridicule or mockery.
Character comedy stereotypes, a persona invented by the performer.
Cringe Comedy the comedy of embarrassment.
Deadpan Delivered with an impassive, expressionless, matter-of-fact presentation, said with a straight face.
Derivation adding prefixes and suffixes creatively, albeit in conformity to general derivation rules
Embarrassing and social ineptitude
Epigrammatic Humour consisting of a witty saying such as “Too many people run out of ideas long before they run out of words.” (Not all epigrams are humorous, however.)
Euphemism A euphemism is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the user wishes to downplay.
Belgium: Name of the collection of problems that exist between France and the Netherlands.
High/highbrow Humour pertaining to cultured, sophisticated themes.
On the shorelines of time, rests the ship of oblivion.
Humorously dim-witted logic. Dim–witted not intelligent : stupid
Hyperbole is the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech, it emphasizes, evokes strong feelings, and creates strong impressions. As a figure of speech, it is usually not meant to be taken literally.
Improvisational Comedy where the dialogue or behaviour is not planned beforehand.
Insult comedy a form which consists mainly of offensive insults directed at the performer’s audience and/or other performers.
Irony is a trope that involves incongruity between what is expected and what occurs and hence is a popular type of humour. Irony is portrayed through words or actions to express something completely different from the literal meaning.
Joke A joke is a display of humour in which words are used within a specific and well-defined narrative structure to make people laugh and is not meant to be taken seriously. It takes the form of a story, usually with dialogue, and ends in a punch line. It is in the punch line that the audience becomes aware that the story contains a second, conflicting meaning. This can be done using a pun or other word play such as irony, a logical incompatibility, nonsense, or other means.
Juvenile/sophomoric: Humour involving childish themes such as pranks, name-calling, and other immature behaviour.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may provide clarity or identify hidden similarities between two ideas. Antithesis, hyperbole, metonymy and simile are all types of metaphor.
Mocking Humor: making fun of someone or something.
Mockumentary A parody using the conventions of documentary style.
Morbid humour: “humour out of the deepest, darkest, situations in life.”
Mordant: Caustic or biting humor (the word stems from a Latin word meaning “to bite”). Not to be confused with morbid humor.
Musical Comedy: A form of alternative comedy where humour is mostly derived from music with or sometimes (if you’re lucky) without lyrics
Non-Sequitur (Latin: sequor means to follow). The punchline is something that is irrelevant and absurd, and opposes the audience’s expectation of a logical ending.
Observational Comedy – poking fun at everyday life, humour in everyday life, inflating the importance of trivial things, or observing the silliness that society accepts as normal. The ability to poke fun at everyday life.
Happiness: A certain elusive quality……
One-liners A joke that is delivered in a single line. A good one-liner is said to be pithy – concise and meaningful.
I don’t think so….
Respect, reflect, reject.
Physical Comedy: people falling down, pranks, the dramatic telling of jokes, humor involving physicality, clowns, mimes, funny facial expressions.
Purposeful ambiguity a word or a string of words dubbed the punning element, manifesting itself in one form (or two very similar ones) but conveying two different meanings.
You can’t get better.
Homonymy. two synchronically unrelated senses
Polysemy, two different but related senses
(What / Watt). Question + answer
Homophony, phonetic similarity
Pragmatist: It is better to be rich and healthy, than to be poor and sick.
Healthy and Wealthy.
A roast is a form of American humour in which a specific individual, a guest of honour, is subjected to jokes at their expense, intended to amuse the event’s wider audience. Such events are intended to honour a specific individual in a unique way.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
Self‐denigrating humour: Humour in which performers target themselves and their foibles or misfortunes for comic effect.
I’m not intelligent enough to be depressed.
Self-enhancing humour. People that fall under this dimension of humour tend to take a humorous perspective of life. Individuals with self-enhancing humour tend to use it as a mechanism to cope with stress.
Semantic phrasemes manifesting humorous potential are characterised by novelty and capitalise on the surprising juxtapositions of their subordinate elements.
Sitcom Scripted dialogue creating a thematic situation; commonly found on television series
Situational Comedy humour arising out of quotidian (everyday, ordinary) situations, scripted dialogue creates a thematic situation.
Sick comedy this comedy favoured observational monologues, often with elements of cynicism, social criticism and political satire, which audiences at the time may have found controversial.
Sketch – shorter than sitcoms, usually performed live.
Slapstick: Comedy in which mock violence and simulated bodily harm are staged for comic effect; also called physical comedy.
Spoof: a funny version of a work or genre to make fun of, or ridicule, just to make people laugh.
Surreal Humour – trippy, bizarre, creepy but hilarious, crazy experiences, nonsensical and nonsequiturs, bizarre juxtapositions, absurd situations, nonsensical themes, nonsense logic.
Topical Humour – humour based on current events or trends.
Fashion quirk: it is about the thought that isn’t behind it.
Fashion: Form of vulgarity that periodically ravages the street scene.
Tragicomic is a literary genre that blends aspects of both tragic and comic forms. Most often seen in dramatic literature, the term can variously describe by either a tragic play which contains enough comic elements to lighten the overall mood or a serious play with a happy ending.
Traditionally there are about 90 different types of humour, as shown here above.