Independent of space and time
Word definition: Ida is one of the three basic nadis (energy channels) found in the astral body.
Etymology: Ida (-nadi) (Sanskrit) Iḍā-nāḍi [from iḍā refreshment + nāḍi tubular vesse One of the three channels forming the spinal column of the body, which are the main avenues for not only the psychovital economy of the body, but likewise for spiritual and intellectual currents between the head and the body proper. The central channel is called the sushumna-nadi, with a channel on either side: the pingala-nadi on the right, and the ida-nadi on the left, although sometimes these positions are given as reversed. All the chakras are connected with the spinal column. (FSO 462).
Technical description: It is one of the three fundamental nadis — namely ida (left), pingala (right), and sushumna (center).
See further: https://marinusjanmarijs.com/subtle-energies/nadis/
Phenomenological description: The ida nadi is 9.mm across and is yellow in colour. ( M.J.M.)
Cross-cultural comparisons: Chinese meridian system
The concept in mythology: Hermes staff.
Word definition: the state or fact of remaining the same one or ones, as under varying aspects or conditions.
Etymology: Word Origin & History: c.1600, “sameness, oneness,” from Middle French identité (14c.), from Late Latin (5c.) identitatem (nominative identitas) “sameness,” from ident-, comb. form of Latin idem (neuter) “the same” (see identical); abstracted from identidem “over and over,” from phrase idem et idem. [For discussion of Latin formation, see entry in OED.] Earlier form of the word in English was idemptitie (1560s), from Medieval Latin idemptitas. Term identity crisis first recorded 1954.
Technical description: In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group). The process of identity can be creative or destructive.
A psychological identity relates to self-image (one’s mental model of oneself), self-esteem, and individuality. Consequently, Weinreich gives the definition “A person’s identity is defined as the totality of one’s self-construal, in which how one construes oneself in the present expresses the continuity between how one construes oneself as one was in the past and how one construes oneself as one aspires to be in the future”; this allows for definitions of aspects of identity, such as: “One’s ethnic identity is defined as that part of the totality of one’s self-construal made up of those dimensions that express the continuity between one’s construal of past ancestry and one’s future aspirations in relation to ethnicity” (Weinreich, 1986a).
Gender identity forms an important part of identity in psychology, as it dictates to a significant degree how one views oneself both as a person and in relation to other people, ideas and nature. Other aspects of identity, such as racial, religious, ethnic, occupational… etc. may also be more or less significant – or significant in some situations but not in others (Weinreich & Saunderson 2003 pp 26–34). In cognitive psychology, the term “identity” refers to the capacity for self-reflection and the awareness of self.(Leary & Tangney 2003, p. 3)
Sociology places some explanatory weight on the concept of role-behavior. The notion of identity negotiation may arise from the learning of social roles through personal experience. Identity negotiation is a process in which a person negotiates with society at large regarding the meaning of his or her identity.
Psychologists most commonly use the term “identity” to describe personal identity, or the idiosyncratic things that make a person unique. Meanwhile, sociologists often use the term to describe social identity, or the collection of group memberships that define the individual. However, these uses are not proprietary, and each discipline may use either concept and each discipline may combine both concepts when considering a person’s identity.
The description or representation of individual and group identity is a central task for psychologists, sociologists and anthropologists and those of other disciplines where “identity” needs to be mapped and defined. How should one describe the identity of another, in ways which encompass both their idiosyncratic qualities and their group memberships or identifications, both of which can shift according to circumstance? Following on from the work of Kelly, Erikson, Tajfel and others Weinreich’s Identity Structure Analysis (ISA), is “a structural representation of the individual’s existential experience, in which the relationships between self and other agents are organised in relatively stable structures over time … with the emphasis on the socio-cultural milieu in which self relates to other agents and institutions” (Weinreich and Saunderson, (eds) 2003, p1). Using constructs drawn from the salient discourses of the individual, the group and cultural norms, the practical operationalisation of ISA provides a methodology that maps how these are used by the individual, applied across time and milieus by the “situated self” to appraise self and other agents and institutions (for example, resulting in the individual’s evaluation of self and significant others and institutions). (Wikipedia)
Phenomenological description: Self.
Relevance of the concept: Within mysticism one finds the idea that on a high level there is what is called “Supreme identity” in which ones identity becomes one with the Absolute.
The concept in mythology: Mirror.
Independent of space and time
Word definition: Infinite
Technical description: In philosophy, it conveys the basic ground concept from the word’s literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond, albeit with varying connotations in its different historical and cultural stages. It includes philosophies, systems, and approaches that describe the fundamental structures of being, not as an ontology (theory of being), but as the framework of emergence and validation of knowledge of being. “Transcendental” is a word derived from the scholastic, designating the extra-categorical attributes of beings. (Wikipedia)
See further: https://marinusjanmarijs.com/evidence-based-approach/14-research-areas/cosmological-planning/phenomena-that-transcend-time-and-space/
Phenomenological description: Non-dual mysticism.
“When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.” – Albert Einstein
Word definition: The idea that events (or certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically.
Etymology: 1874 in philosophy, from in- (1) “not, opposite of” + determinism.
Technical description: It is the opposite of determinism and related to chance. It is highly relevant to the philosophical problem of free will, particularly in the form of metaphysical libertarianism. In science, most specifically quantum theory in physics, indeterminism is the belief that no event is certain and the entire outcome of anything is probabilistic. The Heisenberg uncertainty relations and the “Born rule”, proposed by Max Born, are often starting points in support of the indeterministic nature of the universe. Indeterminism is also asserted by Sir Arthur Eddington, and Murray Gell-Mann. Indeterminism has been promoted by the French biologist Jacques Monod’s essay “Chance and Necessity“. The physicist-chemist Ilya Prigogine argued for indeterminism in complex systems. (Wikipedia)
Phenomenological description: Random.
Relevance of the concept: It is relevant to a number of philosophical problems, but also in theoretical physics.
Literature: Books / Articles / Websites:
Prigogine, Ilya; Stengers, Isabelle (1997). The End of Certainty
Word definition: an instance of apprehending the true nature of a thing, especially through intuitive understanding, penetrating mental vision or discernment; faculty of seeing into inner character or underlying truth.
- an understanding of relationships that sheds light on or helps solve a problem.
- (in psychotherapy) the recognition of sources of emotional difficulty.
- an understanding of the motivational forces behind one’s actions, thoughts, or behaviour; self-knowledge.
Etymology: Word Origin & History: c.1200, innsihht, “sight with the eyes of the mind,” mental vision, understanding,” from in + sight. Sense shaded into “penetrating understanding into character or hidden nature” (1580s).
Technical description: Insight is the understanding of a specific cause and effect in a specific context. The term insight can have several related meanings:
- a piece of information
- the act or result of understanding the inner nature of things or of seeing intuitively (called noesis in Greek)
- an introspection
- the power of acute observation and deduction, penetration, discernment, perception called intellection or noesis
- an understanding of cause and effect based on identification of relationships and behaviors within a model, context, or scenario
Phenomenological description: Trans logical insight or intuition can be differentiated from other thought patterns in that it is a direct knowing and not an analytical process.
Furthermore there is a feeling of being right, correct, this by introspection.
The perception of qualitative differences between different kinds of phenomenological perceptions within one’s own consciousness.
This perceived difference in quality gives this feeling of being right has the following criteria:
The exclusiveness, nothing else pushes forward,
The stubbornness by which the information pressures itself,
The directness by which the information manifests itself,
The coherency, the consistency it has with other conceptions,
The recognition of the reproduced as such,
The feeling of evidence. (William James his Noetic Quality)
Synonyms: intuition, understanding,
Relevance of the concept: Intuition doesn’t use algorithms, analysis or repetitive procedures.
The concept in mythology: Adriane’s thread.
Literature: Books / Articles / Websites:
Jacques Hadamard, The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field – 1954
Word definition: a divine influence directly and immediately exerted upon the mind or soul. the divine quality of the writings or words of a person so influenced.
Etymology: Word Origin & History: c.1300, “immediate influence of God or a god,” especially that under which the holy books were written, from Old French inspiracion “inhaling, breathing in; inspiration,” from Late Latin inspirationem (nominative inspiratio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin inspirare “inspire, inflame, blow into,” from in- “in” (see in- (2)) + spirare “to breathe” (see spirit). Literal sense “act of inhaling” attested in English from 1560s. Meaning “one who inspires others” is attested by 1867.
Technical description: Inspiration (from the Latin inspirare, meaning “to breathe into”) is an unconscious burst of creativity in a literary, musical, or other artistic endeavour. The concept has origins in both Hellenism and Hebraism. The Greeks believed that inspiration or “enthusiasm” came from the muses, as well as the gods Apollo and Dionysus. Similarly, in the Ancient Norse religions, inspiration derives from the gods, such as Odin. Inspiration is also a divine matter in Hebrew poetics. In the Book of Amos the prophet speaks of being overwhelmed by God’s voice and compelled to speak. In Christianity, inspiration is a gift of the Holy Spirit. (Wikipedia)
Phenomenological description: Inspiration often combines multiple elements. Henri van Praag, a well-known Dutch professor in the field of anthropological parapsychology, noted that with inspiration people have the sense that something “from outside” acts upon their mind. This is often not the cause with intuition. Inspiration generates an structuring which is superior to step by step or constructed mental activity. ( M.J.M.)
Synonyms: Revelation, illumination.
Relevance of the concept: Generally the reception of knowledge or influence from a source superior to the ordinary consciousness.
The concept in mythology: the Muses.
Citations: “I believe in intuitions and inspirations…I sometimes FEEL that I am right. I do not KNOW that I am.”
― Albert Einstein
Supporting evidence: The extraordinary quality of artistic creations claimed to be the result of inspiration.
Word definition: an inborn pattern of activity or tendency to action common to a given biological species.
Etymology: early 15c., “a prompting” (a sense now obsolete), from Old French instinct (14c.) or directly from Latin instinctus “instigation, impulse, inspiration,” noun use of past participle of instinguere “to incite, impel,” from in- “into, in, on, upon” (from PIE root *en “in”) + stinguere “prick, goad,” from PIE *steig- “to prick, stick, pierce” (see stick (v.)).
Technical description: (inherited predispositions to respond to certain stimuli in adaptive ways) (Encyclopaedia Britannica)
Phenomenological description: One can only be indirectly aware of.
Synonyms: Impuls, reflex, behavioural patterns.
Relevance of the concept: Instinct is the inborn disposition of a living organism toward a particular behavior or pattern of behaviors, characteristic of the species, and often reactions to certain environmental stimuli. Every animal species has characteristic, generally inherited patterns of responses or reactions, which they use across a wide range of environments without formal instruction, learning, or any other environmental input beyond the bare minimum for physical survival (Blakemore and Jennett 2001). Sea turtles, hatched on a beach, automatically move toward the ocean, and honeybees communicate by dance the direction of a food source, all without formal instruction.
Instinct is an innate tendency to action elicited by external stimuli, unless overridden by intelligence, which is creative and more versatile. Examples of animal behaviors that are not based upon prior experience include reproduction and feeding among insects, animal fighting, animal courtship behavior, internal escape functions, and building of nests. Instinctive behavior can be demonstrated across much of the broad spectrum of animal life, down to bacteria that propel themselves toward beneficial substances, and away from repellent substances. (New World Encyclopedia)
The concept in mythology: The snake, The dragon.
Word definition: capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc. The manifestation of a high mental capacity.
The faculty of understanding.
Etymology: Word Origin & History: late 14c., “faculty of understanding,” from Old French intelligence (12c.), from Latin intelligentia, intellegentia “understanding, power of discerning; art, skill, taste,” from intelligentem (nominative intelligens) “discerning,” present participle of intelligere “to understand, comprehend,” from inter- “between” (see inter-) + legere “choose, pick out, read” (see lecture (n.)). Meaning superior understanding, sagacity” is from early 15c. Sense of “information, news” first recorded mid-15c., especially “secret information from spies” (1580s). Intelligence quotient first recorded 1921
Technical description: Intelligence has been defined in many ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive or infer information, and to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviours within an environment or context. (Wikipedia)
Synonyms: Understanding, brightness.
Word definition; intended: done with intention or on purpose.
Etymology: Word Origin & History: 1520s, from Medieval Latin intentionalis, from intentionem (see intention). Intentional fallacy recorded from 1946.
Technical description: ‘Intentionality’ is a philosophical term that describes the elements of mental states that are ‘directed’ at things or ideas—the fact that thinking, feeling, hoping, believing, desiring are ‘about’ things. How can physical brain processes—electric currents and chemical concentrations—be ‘about’ things? Intentionality, some claim, is a problem for physicalists.
Phenomenological description: intention is a conscious directionality.
Synonyms: designed, planned.
The concept in mythology: The Archer.
Supporting evidence: Introspection.
Word definition: the dualistic doctrine that holds that mind and body have a causal effect upon one another, as when pricking one’s finger (physical) causes pain (mental), or an embarrassing memory (mental) causes one to blush (physical)
Etymology: 1812, from inter- + action.
Technical description: Interactionism within philosophy
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica:
Interactionism, in Cartesian philosophy and the philosophy of mind, those dualistic theories that hold that mind and body, though separate and distinct substances, causally interact. Interactionists assert that a mental event, as when John Doe wills to kick a brick wall, can be the cause of a physical action, his leg and foot moving into the wall. Conversely, the physical event of his foot hitting the wall can be the cause of the mental event of his feeling a sharp pain.
In the 17th century René Descartes gave interactionism its classical formulation. He could give no satisfactory account of how the interaction takes place, however, aside from the speculation that it occurs in the pineal gland deep within the brain. This problem led directly to the occasionalism of Nicolas Malebranche, a 17th–18th-century French Cartesian who held that God moves the foot on the occasion of the willing, and to various other accounts of the mind-body relation. These include the theory of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, a 17th–18th-century German philosopher-mathematician, of a harmony between the mind and body preestablished by God at creation, and the rejection of dualism by the 17th-century Dutch Jewish rationalist Benedict de Spinoza in favour of a monistic theory of mind and body as attributes of one underlying substance.
Two difficulties confront the interactionist: (1) As different substances, mind and body are so radically different in quality that it is difficult to imagine how two such alien things could influence one another. (2) Physical science, when interpreted mechanistically, would seem to present a structure totally impervious to intrusions from a nonphysical realm, an appearance that would seem to be as true of the brain as of any other material aggregate. (Wikipedia)
Phenomenological description: The interaction of non-physical energy fields that represent the qualia and consciousness, with the physical body. ( M.J.M.)
Synonyms: Mind-body connection.
Relevance of the concept: Questions related to consciousness and qualia.
The concept in mythology: The soul.
Supporting evidence: Philosophical data.
Literature: Books / Articles / Websites:
Wilder Penfield; “The mystery of the mind”, Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey, 1975.
John C. Eccles; “The neurophysiological basis of mind”, 1953.
John C. Eccles; ”Facing Reality”, 1970.
Karl R. Popper and John C. Eccles; “The self and its brain”, 1977.
John C. Eccles; ”The Human Psyche”, 1980.
Word definition: Intersubjectivity, in philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, is the psychological relation between people. It is usually used in contrast to solipsistic individual experience, emphasizing our inherently social being.
Etymology: “existing between conscious minds” [OED], 1883, from German intersubjective (1881); see inter- “between” + subjective (adj.).
Technical description: “Intersubjectivity” is a term coined by social scientists as a short-hand description for a variety of human interactions. For example, social psychologists Alex Gillespie and Flora Cornish list at least six definitions of intersubjectivity (and other disciplines have additional definitions).It is important to recognize that “intersubjectivity” has no inherent existence other than as a noun.
“Intersubjectivity” has been used in social science to refer to agreement. There is “intersubjectivity” between people if they agree on a given set of meanings or a definition of the situation. Thus, “intersubjectivity” in this sense is simply an academician’s word for “agreement”. Similarly, Thomas Scheff defines “intersubjectivity” as “the sharing of subjective states by two or more individuals.”
“Intersubjectivity” also has been used to refer to the common-sense, shared meanings constructed by people in their interactions with each other and used as an everyday resource to interpret the meaning of elements of social and cultural life. If people share common sense, then they share a definition of the situation.
The term has also been used to refer to shared (or partially shared) divergences of meaning. Self-presentation, lying, practical jokes, and social emotions, for example, all entail not a shared definition of the situation but partially shared divergences of meaning. Someone who is telling a lie is engaged in an intersubjective act because they are working with two different definitions of the situation. Lying is thus genuinely intersubjective (in the sense of operating between two subjective definitions of reality). (Wikipedia)
Phenomenological description: Examples of intersubjective phenomena include shared values, interpersonal understanding, systems of signifiers, and semantics.
Synonyms: Shared meaning
Relevance of the concept: Intersubjectivity, in philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, is the psychological relation between people. It is usually used in contrast to solipsistic individual experience, emphasizing our inherently social being. (Wikipedia)
The concept in mythology: Mythical worldviews.
Supporting evidence: Communication.
Word definition: observation or examination of one’s own mental and emotional state, mental processes, etc.; the act of looking within oneself.
Etymology: 1670–80; < Latin intrōspect(us), past participle of intrōspicere to look within (equivalent to intrō- intro- + spec(ere) to look + -tus past participle suffix) + -ion.
Technical description: Introspection is the examination of one’s own conscious thoughts and feelings. In psychology, the process of introspection relies exclusively on observation of one’s mental state, while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one’s soul. Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and is contrasted with external observation.
Introspection generally provides a privileged access to our own mental states, not mediated by other sources of knowledge, so that individual experience of the mind is unique. Introspection can determine any number of mental states including: sensory, bodily, cognitive, emotional and so forth.
Introspection has been a subject of philosophical discussion for thousands of years. The philosopher Plato asked, “…why should we not calmly and patiently review our own thoughts, and thoroughly examine and see what these appearances in us really are?” While introspection is applicable to many facets of philosophical thought it is perhaps best known for its role in epistemology, in this context introspection is often compared with perception, reason, memory, and testimony as a source of knowledge. (Wikipedia)
Phenomenological description: First person perception.
Synonyms: Contemplation, self-examination, soul-searching.
The concept in mythology: The mirror.
Word definition: Direct knowing.
Etymology: mid-15c., intuicioun, “insight, direct or immediate cognition, spiritual perception,” originally theological, from Late Latin intuitionem (nominative intuitio) “a looking at, consideration,” noun of action from past participle stem of Latin intueri “look at, consider,” from in- “at, on” (from PIE root *en “in”) + tueri “to look at, watch over”
Technical description: Intuition, in philosophy, the power of obtaining knowledge that cannot be acquired either by inference or observation, by reason or experience. As such, intuition is thought of as an original, independent source of knowledge, since it is designed to account for just those kinds of knowledge that other sources do not provide. Knowledge of necessary truths and of moral principles is sometimes explained in this way. (Encyclopaedia Britannica)
While logic is about how you get from premises (assumptions) to conclusions, one step at a time in a “chain of inference.”, intuition transcends the limits of formal reasoning systems. ( M.J.M.)
The word “intuition” is often misunderstood or misused to mean instinct, but intuition is not the result of a step-like process, it is not algorithmic.
And instincts are by their very nature algorithmic. ( M.J.M.)
Phenomenological description: Max Scheler’s philosophy encompassed ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, religion, the sociology of knowledge, and modern philosophical anthropology, which he founded. As a phenomenologist, he sought to investigate the constitution of the structures of consciousness, including the structures of mental acts—such as feeling, thinking, and willing—and of their inherent objects or correlates—such as (in this case) values, concepts, and projects. Although Husserl influenced all the phenomenologists of his time, Scheler and others criticized his work. Scheler rejected in particular Husserl’s Logische Untersuchungen (1900–01; Logical Investigations) and the analysis of an impersonal “consciousness-as-such” (Bewusstsein überhaupt) in Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie (1913; Ideas), maintaining that every consciousness is infused with the acts of the individual “person.” He also criticized the foundational role assigned by Husserl to “sensory intuition” and “judgmental” phenomenological method; any such method, Scheler claimed, presupposes a grasp of the phenomena it aims to investigate. Instead, Scheler proposed a “psychic technique” similar to that practiced by the Buddha, which involved temporarily suspending all vital energy, or “impulsion” (Drang). Impulsion is the nonphysical life energy that propels all biological motion and growth, up to and including all activities of the mind. According to Scheler, only by temporarily suspending impulsion would one be able to achieve pure intuitions of an unadulterated consciousness. Thus, whereas Husserl’s phenomenology was methodological, Scheler’s, because of the technique of suspension of impulsion, was intuitional. (Encyclopaedia Britannica)
Synonyms: The mind’s eye
Relevance of the concept: Intuition (from the Latin for “look into”) refers to the capacity of knowing or understanding through direct insight, without rational analysis or deductive thinking. It can also refer to the mysterious psychological ability to obtain such knowledge. Intuition’s very immediacy is often considered the best evidence of its accuracy, but the rationalist approach will tend to dismiss it as vague and unreliable. Nevertheless, it is difficult to imagine an intellectual system that makes no use of some sort of intuitive apprehension of reality. The rational discourse eventually leads to intuitive insights that, in turn, can be used as building blocks for further reasoning. Because of its very nature, intuition is thus very difficult to define through logical discourse and its meaning can best be conveyed through suggestive hints.
Because of its immediacy, intuition can be seen as a largely unconscious form of knowledge. Intuition differs from an opinion since opinion is based on experience, while an intuition is held to be affected by previous experiences only unconsciously. Intuition also differs from instinct, which does not have the experience element at all. Intuition is trans-intellectual, while instinct is pre-intellectual. A person who has an intuitive opinion cannot immediately fully explain why he or she holds that view. However, a person may later rationalize an intuition by developing a chain of logic to demonstrate more structurally why the intuition should be considered as valid. (New World Encyclopedia)
The concept in mythology: Inner voice.
Citations: Intuition The working of the inner vision, instant and direct cognition of truth. This spiritual faculty, though not yet in any sense fully developed in the human race, yet occasionally shows itself as hunches. Every human being is born with at least the rudiment of this inner sense. Plotinus taught that the secret gnosis has three degrees — opinion, science or knowledge, and illumination — and that the instrument of the third is intuition. To this, reason is subordinate, for intuition is absolute knowledge, founded on the identification of the mind with the object. Iamblichus wrote of intuition: “There is a faculty of the human mind, which is superior to all which is born or begotten. Through it we are enabled to attain union with the superior intelligences, to be transported beyond the scenes of this world, and to partake of the higher life and peculiar powers of the heavenly ones.”
Supporting evidence: Kurt Gödel Austrian-born mathematician, logician, and philosopher who obtained what may be the most important mathematical result of the 20th century: his famous incompleteness theorem, This proof established Gödel as one of the greatest logicians since Aristotle, and its repercussions continue to be felt and debated today.
He began writing about philosophical issues. Gödel had always been interested in this. Indeed, it is a little-known fact that Gödel set out to prove the incompleteness theorem in the first place because he thought he could use it to establish the philosophical view known as Platonism—or, more specifically, the subview known as mathematical Platonism. Mathematical Platonism is the view that mathematical sentences, such as “2 + 2 = 4,” provide true descriptions of a collection of objects—namely, numbers—that are nonphysical and nonmental and exist outside of space and time in a special mathematical realm—or, as it has also been called, “Platonic Heaven.” Gödel’s idea was that if he could prove the incompleteness theorem, then he could show that there were unprovable mathematical truths. This, he thought, would go a long way toward establishing Platonism, because it would show that mathematical truth is objective—i.e., that it goes beyond mere human provability or human axiom systems.
In 1964 Gödel published a philosophical paper, “What Is Cantor’s Continuum Problem?,” in which he proposed a solution to an ancient objection to Platonism. It is often argued that Platonism cannot be true, because it makes mathematical knowledge impossible: whereas humans seem to acquire all knowledge of the external world through sensory perception, Platonism asserts that mathematical objects, such as numbers, are nonphysical objects that cannot be perceived by the senses. Gödel responded to this argument by claiming that, in addition to the normal five senses, humans also possess a faculty of mathematical intuition, a faculty that enables people to grasp the nature of numbers or to see them in the mind’s eye. Gödel’s claim was that the faculty of mathematical intuition makes it possible to acquire knowledge of nonphysical mathematical objects that exist outside of space and time. (Encyclopaedia Britannica)
Word definition: an act or instance of creating or producing by exercise of the imagination, especially in art, music, technology, etc.
Etymology: early 15c., “finding or discovering of something,” from Old French invencion (13c.) and directly from Latin inventionem (nominative inventio) “faculty of invention,” noun of action from past participle stem of invenire “to come upon, find; find out; invent, discover, devise; ascertain; acquire, get earn,” from in- “in, on” (from PIE root *en “in”) + venire “to come,” from a suffixed form of PIE root *gwa- “to go, come.” Sense of “thing invented” is first recorded 1510s; that of “act or process of finding out how to make or do” is from 1530s.
Technical description: An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for creating an object or a result. An invention that achieves a completely unique function or result may be a radical breakthrough. Such works are novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field. An inventor may be taking a big step in success or failure. (Wikipedia)
See further: https://marinusjanmarijs.com/evidence-based-approach/14-research-areas/non-physical-perception-and-communication/parallel-discoveries/
Synonyms: Creation, Discovery
Relevance of the concept: a concept which is at the heart of cultural, technological and scientific development.
Supporting evidence: Intercultural similarities.
Word definition: The descent of the Spirit into matter
Etymology: late 14c., “condition of being twisted or coiled; a fold or entanglement,” originally in anatomy, from Late Latin involutionem (nominative involutio) “a rolling up,” noun of action from past participle stem of Latin involvere “envelop, surround, roll into”
Technical description: Involution is the involvement of the Ain Soph (limitless) into matter; this process is performed by the Monads that emerge from out its bosom and descend through its light-ray (Ain Soph Aur) into the universe (adverse of the unity). Once the involution ends, the mechanical process of evolution and devolution begins.
Involution is the process by which the Absolute manifests matter, energy, and cognizance within the universe; it is the process by which diversity emerges from unity.
Involution is the necessary decent of the Noumenon into the Phenomena, that is, the necessary descent of that which is unknowable to itself, in order to become knowable to itself.
Involution is the process of how part of the Absolute becomes self-limited by veiling its cognizance from itself by stages into the complication of the matter and energy until it assumes an illusory appearance in the seven cosmos.
Involution is the process where the Absolute becomes infinite so that its spiritual properties can awaken into infinite possibilities, for the only purpose of knowing itself.
Involution is the descent of the Monads into the universe in order to devote themselves to the attainment of self-cognizance through the building of energy-matter-cognizant vessels, so that the noumenon can manifests its properties.
Through involution, the Ain Soph (limitless) gradually carries its life into denser and denser cosmic matters to the lowest point of materiality, in order to manifest its properties; from that point, in order to victoriously re-ascend towards its original point of departure, its life must gradually revolve by means of its cognizance and will, thus succeeding in the objective of its existence, during which the Monad develops self-cognizance. (Gnostic Teachings.org)
Phenomenological description: The enfolding and “involving” of the higher dimensions into the lower, depositing themselves into the lower as potentials ready to unfold into actuality through evolution.
The concept in mythology: Descending.
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Literature: Books / Articles / Websites: