Balance by Marinus Jan Marijs
Rationalism – Empiricism
Rationalism is the theory that reason rather than experience is the foundation of certainty in knowledge. Empiricism concerns the extent to which we are dependent upon sense experience in our effort to gain knowledge. Both are necessary and complement each other
Analytic – Synthesis
The definition of analytical is someone who studies and examines the elemental parts of something, or is something related to the study of small parts of a whole.
Synthesis is defined as combining a number of different parts or ideas to come up with a new idea or theory.
Logical – Observable
The definition of logical is something that makes sense according to the rules of logic, or something that is rational.
Observable is that can be observed; visible; discernible; noticeable
Qualitative research – Quantitative research
Quantitative research is scientifically more exact than qualitative research, that ―qualitative studies often serve as a crucial starting point for more controlled quantitative studies‖ (p. 17). Kuhn (1961) suggests that the two are co-dependent and that ―large amounts of qualitative work have usually been prerequisite to fruitful quantification in the physical sciences
Automatic – Conscious
Automatic is something that moves or operates without conscious thought or external control.
Intuitive – Methodical
Intuitive is processless direct knowing
Methodical is characterized by or given to serious thinking or contemplation; thoughtful.
Concrete – Abstract
Concrete is having a material, perceptible existence; of, belonging to, or characterized by things or events that can be perceived by the senses; real; actual
Abstract is thought of apart from any particular instances or material objects; not concrete
Conservative – Progressive
Both are necessary, without a certain degree of conservatism there is chaos and without a certain degree of progressivism there is stagnation.
Mathematics – Experimental
Mathematics is the group of sciences (including arithmetic, geometry, algebra, calculus, etc.) dealing with quantities, magnitudes, and forms, and their relationships, attributes, etc., by the use of numbers and symbols
Experimental is of the nature of an experiment; constituting or undergoing a test
Conceptual – Perceptual
(The map) (The landscape)
Feeling – Facts
(Social) – (Cognitive)
Phenomenology – Structuralism
The phenomenological method relies on the description of phenomena as they are given to consciousness, in their immediacy.
Structuralism is a method of interpretation and analysis of aspects of human cognition, behaviour, culture, and experience, which focuses on relationships of contrast between elements in a conceptual system.
Hermeneutics – Ethnomethodology
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts
Ethnomethodology is a method of sociological analysis that examines how individuals use everyday conversation to construct a common-sense view of the world.
Autopoiesis – Empiricism
Autopoiesis is self-maintaining and self-regulating.
Empiricism is the theory that all knowledge is based on experience derived from the senses.
Social autopoiesis – Systems theory
Social autopoiesis is: The organizational closure of social system
Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems. A system is a cohesive conglomeration of interrelated and interdependent parts which can be natural or human-made. … Changing one part of a system may affect other parts or the whole system. It may be possible to predict these changes in patterns of behavior.
Descriptive – Explanatory
Descriptive is describing or classifying in an objective and non-judgemental way.
Explanatory are theories are intended to make people understand something by describing it or giving the reasons for it.
Deductive – Inductive
Deductive reasoning relies on a general statement or hypothesis (sometimes called a premise or standard) held to be true to reach a specific, logical conclusion. A common example is this: If A = B and B = C, then deductive reasoning tells us that A = C. This is different from inductive reasoning, sometimes known as bottom-up thinking, which involves making broad generalizations based on specific observations.
Inductive reasoning is a type of logical thinking that involves forming generalizations based on specific incidents you’ve experienced, observations you’ve made, or facts you know to be true or false.
Inductive reasoning is a logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion.
It is method of reasoning from particular to general; the mental process involved in creating generalizations from the observed phenomenon or principles.
Routine – Unconditioned
A routine is a regular process or course of action.
Unconditioned is not dependent on or resulting from conditioning; unlearned or natural.
Top down – Bottom up
Both approaches are in many cases supplementary, not only within the areas of business, finance, investing, and economics, but also in social and political structures